South Africa’s evolving air quality and climate change legal compliance regime seeks to address issues related to a wide range of industrial emissions. Coal is currently the single largest energy source, income earner and coal-mine and power generating employer in South Africa. However, coal is associated with significant emissions that are linked to climate change and poor air quality which has implications in terms of the South African Constitution whereby everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to health and well-being. Managing air quality issues is complex and in need of attention in the light of health of the region’s population, future power generation and recent/current pending legislation. This Workshop presents key issues for consideration and debate.